Formulation of cell theory, and realization that cells are the building blocks of life.
First computing devices are created.
Stem cells were discovered.
Proliferation of personal computers and invention of microprocessors.
Charles Hull invents the first 3D printer, allowing tangible 3D objects to be created from digital data.
Proliferation of supercomputers many times faster than personal computers.
Discovery that individual cellular aggregates can be arranged and they could fuse – self-organizing and self-assembling to form new combined structures.
Biologist James Thompson developed the first human stem cell lines.
First lab-grown implanted organ.
Medical field begins using 3D printing.
Proliferation of quantum computers, markedly faster than supercomputers.
Thomas Boland creates the first bioprinter.
Completion of computer mapping of the human genome from both physical and functional standpoints.
Dr. Shinya Yamanaka makes groundbreaking Nobel Prize winning discovery that mature adult specialized cells can be reprogrammed back into a stem cell state, confirming that cellular differentiation is not unidirectional.
Lab-grown human bladder is implanted.
First blood vessels are 3D bioprinted.
2010 to present
Additional advancements in 3D printing technology enable production of bones, ears, exoskeletons, windpipes, blood vessels, vascular networks, tissues and even simple organs.