HISTORY OF BIOPRINTING

Bioprinting is the culmination of biological and technological advances that have been decades in the making. Here are some key milestones.

1839
Formulation of cell theory, and realization that cells are the building blocks of life.
1930s
First computing devices are created.
1978
Stem cells were discovered.
1980s
Proliferation of personal computers and invention of microprocessors.
1984
Charles Hull invents the first 3D printer, allowing tangible 3D objects to be created from digital data.
1990s
Proliferation of supercomputers many times faster than personal computers.
1996
Discovery that individual cellular aggregates can be arranged and they could fuse – self-organizing and self-assembling to form new combined structures.
1998
Biologist James Thompson developed the first human stem cell lines.
1999
First lab-grown implanted organ.
2000
Medical field begins using 3D printing.
2000s
Proliferation of quantum computers, markedly faster than supercomputers.
2003
Thomas Boland creates the first bioprinter.
2003
Completion of computer mapping of the human genome from both physical and functional standpoints.
2006
Dr. Shinya Yamanaka makes groundbreaking Nobel Prize winning discovery that mature adult specialized cells can be reprogrammed back into a stem cell state, confirming that cellular differentiation is not unidirectional.
2006
Lab-grown human bladder is implanted.
2009
First blood vessels are 3D bioprinted.
2010 to present
Additional advancements in 3D printing technology enable production of bones, ears, exoskeletons, windpipes, blood vessels, vascular networks, tissues and even simple organs.
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